A&P 1 Lecture notes

Figure 4.5 Date is 10-16-19

  • Columnar Epithelial
  • Pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium ,
  • Location – Lining of nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi, portions of the male reproductive tract.
  • Function : protection and secretion.
  • Stratified Columnar Epithelium (multiple layered column cells.
  • Locations – Small areas of the pharynx, epiglottis, anus, mammary gland, salivary glad ducts , and urethra
  • Function: Protection

Glandular epithelia

  • Exocrine glands – made mostly of simple cuboidal epithelium

Connective Tissue functions

  • Establishes a structural framwork – bones
  • Transports fluids and dissolved materials – blood, cardiovascular system
  • Protects delicate organs – adipose tissue
  • Supports, surrounding and interconnecting tissues – areolar conncective tissue
  • Storing energy reserves – adipose
  • Defends the body from microorganims – white blood cells

Contain specialized cells,

matrix (not living), composed of extracellular protein fibers and a ground substance.

  • blasts – creates
  • clasts – destroys, breaks down
  • cyte – maintains
  • Types of fibers
  • Collagenous – collagen – very strong protein.
  • Elastic – elastin
  • Reticular – collagen, threadlike protein. Adds more strength.

Connective tissue proper classified as loose or dense.

Areolar tissue

  • Cells – Fibroblasts, Macrophage,
  • Fibers – Elastic, Collagen, Reticular
  • Ground Substance – Proteoglycan , “filler” substance, low viscousity
  • Loose Connective Tissue
  • Located in the Dermis

Adipose tissue – vascular

  • Cells – Adipocytes
  • No fibers
  • Ground Substance – Proteoglycan
  • Loose Connective tissue
  • Location – hypodermis

Reticular tissue

  • Fibers- reticular fibers
  • Ground substance – proteoglycan
  • Loose connective tissue
  • Location – soft organs, liver and spleen.

Dense Regular Connective Tissue – holds bone to bone together, dense and powerful.

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

  • Cells- Fibroblasts
  • Fibers- Collagen fibers
  • Location- Dermis

Elastic Tissue

  • Cells- fibroblasts
  • Fibers- Elastic
  • Ground substance- proteoglycan
  • Dense connective tissue
  • Location – inter vertebral

Fluid Connective Tissues

Blood– blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Floats in the plasma and is located in the blood vessels.

Cartilage – bone support for the rest of the body.

Hyaline Cartilage

  • Between tips of (joints) bones for friction.
  • Cells- Chondrocytes in lacunae
  • Fibers- collagen
  • Ground Substance – firm gel chondroitin sulfate
  • Location – in joints

The Perichodrium and Types of Cartilage

  • Location – Auricle of external ear, epiglottis, auditory canal, cuneiform cartilages of larynx.
  • Function – Provides support, but tolerates distortion without damage and returns to original shape

Fibrocartilage

  • Fibers – collagen cartilage
  • Location – pads within knee joint, between pubic bones of the pelvis, and inter vertebral discs.
  • Function – Resists compression, prevents bone-to-bone contact, limits relative movement

Bone

  • Cells – osteocytes
  • Fibers – collagen fibers
  • Ground Substance – Hydroxlyapatite, hard as a rock.
  • Location – in bones obviously
  • Function – support

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